Alexander B, Browse DJ, Reading SJ, Benjamin IS. A simple and accurate mathematical method for calculation of the EC50
. Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
41: 55-58. 1999.
Aucoin M, Cardozo V, McLaren MD, Garber A, Remy D, Baker J, Gratton A, Kala MA, Monteiro S, Warder C. A systematic review on the effects of Echinacea
supplementation on cytokine levels: Is there a role in COVID-19. Metabolism Open
11: 100115. 2021.
Bilal M, Mehmood S, Iqbal HMN. The beast of beauty: environmental and health concerns of toxic components in cosmetics. Cosmetics
7: 13. 2020.
Blois MS. Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature
181: 1199-1200. 1958.
Chicca A, Adinolfi B, Martinotti E, Fogli S, Breschi MC, Pellati F, Nieri P. Cytotoxic effects of Echinacea
root hexanic extracts on human cancer cell lines. Journal of Ethnopharmacology
110: 148-153. 2007.
Cho W, Nam JW, Kang HJ, Windono T, Seo EK, Lee KT. Zedoarondiol isolated from the rhizoma of Curcuma heyneana
is involved in the inhibition of iNOS, COX-2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines via the downregulation of NF-κB pathway in LPS-stimulated murine macrophages. International Immunopharmacology
9: 1049-1057. 2009.
Da Cunha FM, Duma D, Assreuy J, Buzzi FC, Niero R, Campos MM, Calixto JB. Caffeic acid derivatives: in vitro
and in vivo
anti-inflammatory properties. Free Radical Research
38: 1241-1253. 2004.
Dogan Z, Ergul B, Sarikaya M, Filik L, Gonultaş MA, Hucumenoglu S, Can M. The protective effect of Echinacea
and Echinacea purpurea
) in a rat colitis model induced by acetic acid. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
27: 1827-1835. 2014.
Floegel A, Kim DO, Chung SJ, Koo SI, Chun OK. Comparison of ABTS/DPPH assays to measure antioxidant capacity in popular antioxidant-rich US foods. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis
24: 1043-1048. 2011.
Gilroy DW, Lawrence T, Perretti M, Rossi AG. Inflammatory resolution: new opportunities for drug discovery. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery
3: 401-416. 2004.
Huang H, Patel DD, Manton KG. The immune system in aging: roles of cytokines, T cells and NK cells. Frontiers in Bioscience
10: 192-215. 2005.
Jiang W, Zhu H, Xu W, Liu C, Hu B, Guo Y, Cheng Y, Qian H. Echinacea purpurea
polysaccharide prepared by fractional precipitation prevents alcoholic liver injury in mice by protecting the intestinal barrier and regulating liver-related pathways. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
187: 143-156. 2021.
Kageyama H, Waditee-Sirisattha R. Antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-aging properties of mycosporine-like amino acids: molecular and cellular mechanisms in the protection of skin-aging. Marine Drugs
17: 222. 2019.
Kang BH, Ryu MJ. Physiological activities of the neem and the comfrey extracts as cosmetic ingredients. Asian Journal of Beauty and Cosmetology
19: 223-234. 2021.
Kim DH, Hwang EY, Son JH. Anti-inflammatory activity of Carthamus tinctorious seed extracts in Raw 2647 cells. Journal of Life Science
23: 55-62. 2013.
Ko HN, Kang JM, Kim HM, Han JH, Lee NH. Anti-inflammatory constituents from the branches of Pourthiaea villosa
(Thunb.) Decne. Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
38: 711-715. 2017.
Korkina LG, Afanas' Ev IB. Antioxidant and chelating properties of flavonoids. Advances in pharmacology
38: 151-163. 1996.
Kumar KM, Ramaiah S. Pharmacological importance of Echinacea purpurea. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences 2: 304-314. 2011.
Kwon DJ, Bae YS, Ju SM, Goh AR, Choi SY, Park J. Casuarinin suppresses TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 expression via blockade of NF-κB activation in HaCaT cells. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
409: 780-785. 2011.
Lee SM, Kim CD. Antioxidant effect of leaf, stem, and root extracts of Zingiber officinale
as cosmetic materials. Asian Journal of Beauty and Cosmetology
19: 23-33. 2021.
Lee J, Park S. Effects of flavonoids on skin according to their structural characteristics: a review. Asian Journal of Beauty and Cosmetology
20: 133-143. 2022.
Lee CE, Jeong HH, Cho JA, Ly SY. In vitro and in vivo
antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of Acer tegmentosum
maxim extracts. Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
46: 1-9. 2017.
Lee JR, Kim YW, Byun SH, Kim SC, Park SJ. Anti-inflammatory effects of the fermentation extracts consisting of soybean, red ginseng and Citrus Unshiu peel. The Korea Journal of Herbology
30: 59-65. 2015.
Lienert D, Anklam E, Panne U. Gas chromatography-mass spectral analysis of roots of Echinacea
species and classification by multivariate data analysis. Phytochemical Analysis: An International Journal of Plant Chemical and Biochemical Techniques
9: 88-98. 1998.
Lopresti AL, Smith SJ. An investigation into the anxiety-relieving and mood-enhancing effects of Echinacea angustifolia
(EP107™): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Journal of Affective Disorders
293: 229-237. 2021.
Pekal A, Pyrzynska K. Evaluation of aluminium complexation reaction for flavonoid content assay. Food Analytical Methods
7: 1776-1782. 2014.
Pellati F, Epifano F, Contaldo N, Orlandini G, Cavicchi L, Genovese S, Bellardi MG. Chromatographic methods for metabolite profiling of virus-and phytoplasma-infected plants of Echinacea purpurea
. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
59: 10425-10434. 2011.
Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radical Biology and Medicine
26: 1231-1237. 1999.
Sánchez CS, Troncoso González AM, García-Parrilla MC, Granados JQ, De La Serrana HLG, Martínez ML. Different radical scavenging tests in virgin olive oil and their relation to the total phenol content. Analytica chimica acta
593: 103-107. 2007.
Sharif-Rad M, Mnayer D, Morais-Braga MFB, Carneiro JNP, Bezerra CF, Coutinho HDM, Sharifi B, Martorell M, Contreras MDM, Soltani-Nejds A, et al. Echinacea
plants as antioxidant and antibacterial agents: from traditional medicine to biotechnological applications. Phytotherapy Research
32: 1653-1663. 2018.
Thannickal VJ, Fanburg BL. Reactive oxygen species in cell signaling. American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
279: 1005-1028. 2000.
Yun KJ, Kim JY, Kim JB, Lee KW, Jeong SY, Park HJ, Jung HJ, Cho YW, Yun K, Lee KT. Inhibition of LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production by asiatic acid via NF-κB inactivation in RAW 2647 macrophages: possible involvement of the IKK and MAPK pathways. International immunopharmacology
8: 431-441. 2008.
Zhou Y, Hileman EO, Plunkett W, Keating MJ, Huang P. Free radical stress in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells and its role in cellular sensitivity to ROS-generating anticancer agents. Blood
101: 4098-4104. 2003.